Friday, April 5, 2024

Neuropathology Blog is Signing Off

Neuropathology Blog has run its course. It's been a fantastic experience authoring this blog over many years. The blog has been a source of education, connection, and entertainment for me since its inception in October 2007. I hope readers have enjoyed it as much as I have. This is my 900th post; and the blog has had more than 1.4 million page views over the course of these years. The blog will continue to live on as a resource for people searching for neuropoathology answers. For example, anyone searching the web for information about the "Cowdry B" inclusion, which I deemed the "Sasquatch of neuropathology" back in the original post in 2008, can find the a deep discussion of the origin of this concept on the blog. Thank you everyone! Signing off.... Brian

Tuesday, March 21, 2023

Dr. Diamandis develops network to help pathologists interface with AI computational scientists

A neuropathology colleague in Toronto (Dr. Phedias Diamandis) is developing some amazing AI-based tools for pathology and academia. He helped recently launch a site called "CODIDO" ( which is a cloud-based network that allows computational scientists to share AI and machine learning algorithms with general users/academics who are keen on using AI but may not know how to code sufficiently well to implement them. It's a great way to allow people to "Demo" code and will hopefully become a central place for pathologists to access a variety of pathology-related algorithms for image analysis projects. They have a few algorithms up already, but they are hoping to expand this by having additional people in the computational pathology space contribute. If you or your residents are passionate about AI and it's potential in our field but do not have a computational background, his team also recently launched a companion site called "PHARAOH" ( that places histology experts in the driver's seat and allows them to to use their skills to design custom models of intertest and share them with the community. This all can be done without any coding expertise or specialized hardware or software. Phedias is hoping to develop a snowball effect to populate the tools further to create an inter-active and growing online network of community tools. He shared a relevant lecture decribing these tools in case you want to learn more about the motivation behind both initiatives ( Check it out and feel free to contact Dr. Diamandis for more details at

Friday, January 6, 2023

Neuropathology Blog is back

It's been more than a year since I've posted anything on this site. But, I've thought on and off about reviving the blog. Finally, I have come around to it. So, stay tuned as new posts are coming....

Thursday, September 30, 2021

Brain Pathology's “Under your Microscope” Now Underway

This just in from today's guest blogger Dr. Rachael Vaubel:

Brain Pathology “Under your Microscope” is finally up and running! For anyone unfamiliar, this series is a new Case Image series, which took the place of the Case of the Month.

This new series presents unusual and interesting “unknown” cases that we come across in daily practice with differential diagnoses and teaching points. The case history is presented along with digital microscopy files allowing the readers to take a first look at the whole scanned slides as they would appear under their microscope. It is a fantastic educational resource for trainees and practicing pathologists. The first cases are published and are available on the Brain Pathology website. The cases are searchable by their diagnosis / author / or other keyword and over time the digital files will provide an archive of clinical teaching cases.

As before, Under your Microscope encourages the submission of cases from the entire spectrum of neurological disease, including diagnostic challenges, rare clinical entities, cases with classic pathognomonic findings. Please, note: for anyone interested in submitting a case, the submission process for “Under your Microscope” has changed. Cases are now submitted using the same system as other articles for Brain Pathology.

There is no charge for the publications of Under your Microscope cases. If you had an accepted case prior to 2020, which remains unpublished, please contact Caterina Giannini (

Friday, September 3, 2021

Webinar in Quantitative Digital Pathology Methods Applied to Neuropathology

Dr. Maggie Flanagan of Northwestern University recently informed me of the upcoming digital pathology webinar session which Dr. Pete Nelson will be leading this month. Here are the details: Quantitative Digital Pathology Methods Applied to Neuropathology Monday, September 13, 2021 at 11:00am ET The ADRC Digital Pathology Working Group in collaboration with NACC invite you to attend a one-hour webinar session which will provide an overview on developing and understanding questions in science that can be answered using digital neuropathology. SPEAKERS Peter T. Nelson, MD, PhD - Professor of Pathology; Director of Neuropathology; ADRC Neuropathology Core Leader, University of Kentucky ADRC Brittany N. Dugger, PhD - Assistant Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine; ADRC Neuropathology Co-Core Leader at UC Davis ADRC; Co-Leader UC Davis School of Medicine Machine Learning Working Group Melissa E. Murray, PhD - Associate Professor of Neuroscience; ADRC Neuropathology Co-Core Leader at Mayo Clinic ADRC John F. Crary, MD, PhD - Professor of Pathology, Molecular and Cell Based Medicine, and Neuroscience; Director of Neuropathology Brain Bank and Research Core; Co-Director of ADRC Neuropathology Core at Mount Sinai ADRC Register to Attend In order to receive the Zoom link for this free webinar on Monday, September 13th, you must register here. Upon registering, you will receive a follow-up email with the Zoom link and Calendar Invite, as well as automatic reminders about the event with timely and necessary information. Contact for further questions:

Wednesday, June 9, 2021

Forensic Neuropathology Symposium kicks off 97th Annual AANP Meeting

Dr. Marc Del Bigio of the University of Manitoba was first in the line-up for an excellent forensic neuropathology symposium as a satellite preface to the 97th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Neuropathologists. His discussion was entitled "Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Outside of the Sports Arena". After a review of the history of the development of CTE as a diagnostic entity, Dr. Del Bigio discussed the fact that this disease does not only occur among athletes. Dr. Del Bigio studied 111 brains in a routine autopsy service of patients aged 18 to 60 years old. Del Bigio and his group found that the cases which had CTE pathology had an increased likelihood of having a clinical history of repeated head trauma and/or substance abuse. Del Bigio suggested that tau immunohistochemistry can be done in a limited way in patients with a clinical history suggestive that CTE is possible.

Monday, May 10, 2021

Coronavirus does not infect the brain but still inflicts damage, study finds

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, does not infect brain cells but can inflict significant neurological damage, according to a new autopsy study. SARS-CoV-2 likely does not directly infect the brain but can still inflict significant neurological damage, according to a new study from researchers at Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons. "There's been considerable debate about whether this virus infects the brain, but we were unable to find any signs of virus inside brain cells of more than 40 COVID-19 patients," says James E. Goldman, MD, PhD, professor of pathology and a leading author of the study. The study, published in the journal Brain, is the largest and most detailed COVID-19 brain autopsy report published to date, suggests that the neurological changes often seen in these patients may result from inflammation triggered by the virus in other parts of the body or in the brain's blood vessels.

Friday, April 2, 2021

2021 Update on Meningeal Solitary Fibrous Tumor

Meningeal Solitary Fibrous Tumor (SFT) is an uncommon tumor, accounting for less than 1% of CNS tumors. It is a fibroblastic neoplasm with a genomic inversion at the 12q13 locus, leading to NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion and surrogate nuclear STAT6 immunohistochemical expression. SFT generally affects adults in the fifth to seventh decades. It is dural-based and typically supratentorial, but 10% have a spinal location. SFT has a high propensity for recurrence and metstasis, at times occuring decades after initial diagnosis. Imaging often prompts a pre-operative assumption of meningioma as the diagnosis. Histologically, the tumor has a spindle cell appearance and variably cellular with abundant stromal keloid-type collagen. Some examples are very cellular tumors with densely packed round-to ovoid cells and little intervening stroma. Mitoses and necrosis can be present. Can a true SFT be STAT6 negative on immunohsitochemical examination? Yes, but it is just as likely that the pathologist is looking at something else on the differential diagnosis, including other unusual mesechymal tumors. In such cases, molecular testing for STAT6 fusion is required to render a confident diagnosis. Grading of SFT has changes since the last iteration of the WHO Classification in 2016. The 2016 criteria depended on the histologic hemangiopericytoma phenotype as a factor in raising this tumor from a grade I up to a grade II tumor. Now, in the soon-to-be-released 2021 WHO Classification, this phenotype is not considered important -- with emphasis instead on mitotic count as a means of creating grading cut-offs. Specifically, SFTs with fewer than 5 mitoses per ten high-power fields are considered grade 1, while a mitotic count of 5 or greater justifies a grade 2 designation. If, in addition to this elevated mitotic count, necrosis is present, then a grade 3 designation is assigned. There have been reported some rare pattern in SFT, including lipomatous, pappillary, giant cell, and myxoid; but these do not affect prognosis. If STAT6 is negative, the pathologist shoud think about other entities in the differential diagnosis, including fibrous meningioma, a variety of mesenchymal tumors (such as phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and primary non-pigmented melanocytic tumors of the CNS. To reiterate, three grade of SFT will be recognized in the 2021 WHO classification of CNS tumors: Grade 1 - SFT with less than five mitotic figures per ten high power fields; Grade 2 - SFT with five or greater mitotic figures per ten high power fields; Grade 3 - SFT with five or greater mitotic figures per ten high power fields and necrosis. This information is taken from an excellent lecture on this SFTs delivered by Dr. Caterina Giannini at this year's annual USCAP meeting (see photo of her below delivering her lecture remotely). Thanks Dr. Gianinni for distilling this topic down to a concoction suitable for us blue-collar neuropathologists to imbibe!

Monday, March 15, 2021

Glioma diagnostics and research in JoVE

I recently received an email from Chun-Chieh (Paul) Lin and George Zanazzi at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center. They were invited as editors for a new Methods Collection in JoVE focusing on "Glioma diagnostics and research". Dr. Lin and Zanazzi write: "We intend to highlight techniques used in the diagnostic classification of glial neoplasms and also in vivo or in vitro glioma research models. We welcome a variety of submissions covering these challenging but interesting neoplasms." Please feel free to contact Paul ( and George ( for details!
Dr. Paul Lin
Dr. George Zanazzi

Monday, March 1, 2021

Dr. Mauro C. Dal Canto (January 1, 1944 – December 16, 2020)

I recently received word from Dr. Eddie Lee of the passing of Dr. Mauro Dal Canto due to a tragic aircraft accident.

Dr. Maura Dal Canto

Dr. Dal Canto was a neuropathologist at Northwestern for many years and a member of the American Association of Neuropathologists as well. Here is Dr. Canto's obituary

Friday, February 26, 2021

History and Overview of Digital Pathology Webinar Scheduled for Monday, March 8

I recently received notification from Margaret E. Flanagan, M.D., assistant professor of pathology at Northwestern, about an upcoming event featuring several well-known neuropathologists.  You can register for the event here. Thanks very much, Dr. Flanagan!

Dr. Margaret E. Flanagan


History & Overview of Digital Pathology

Webinar - March 8, 2021



The ADRC Digital Pathology Working Group and National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center are excited to host the following webinar on Monday, March 8, 2021 at 11am ET/ 8am PT!


History and Overview of Digital Pathology

Join us on March 8th as we kick off our 2021 Digital Pathology Webinar Series with our first event: History and Overview of Digital Pathology Webinar. This one-hour webinar session will provide an introduction and overview of digital pathology. The speaker and panelists are outlined below.



Charles L. White, III MD


Charles L. White III MD

Sandra Camelo-Piragua, MD

C. Dirk Keene, MD, PhD

Peter T. Nelson, MD, PhD

Jeanelle Azira Torres

Brittany N. Dugger, PhD


Have questions you want to ask our panelists? Submit them in advance to


About the 2021 Digital Pathology Webinar Series

At 11am ET on the second Monday of each month*, keep an eye out for our Digital Pathology Webinars, showcasing 30 minutes of panel discussion and 30 minutes of Q&A.


Topics include an overview of digital pathology, slide scanner purchasing considerations, HALO Software Applications, Aperio Software Applications, QuPath Software Applications, Machine Learning for Digital Pathology and general troubleshooting.


Neuropathology Blog is Signing Off

Neuropathology Blog has run its course. It's been a fantastic experience authoring this blog over many years. The blog has been a source...