Wednesday, December 7, 2016

Neuropathology History: Désiré Magloire Bourneville (1840-1909)

Désiré Magloire Bourneville (1840-1909)

Born in Garenciéres, France. From 1905 until his death, Bourneville headed the Foundation Vallée for the Study of Feebleminded Children.  "Was recognized as the leading continental authority on all aspects of mental abnormality of children. Most of his neuropathologic work was on idiocy. His description of tuberous sclerosis, since known as Bourneville's disease, appeared in 1880."

Source: Haymaker, Webb (Army Institute of Pathology). Guide to the exhibit on the history of neuropathology. Presented at the annual meetings of the American Psychiatric Association (Washington, DC, May 17-20, 1948) and the American Neurological Association (Atlantic City, June 14-17, 1948).

Tuesday, December 6, 2016

Neuropathology History: Sir Edward Farquhar Buzzard (1871-1945)

"Born in London... Became Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford University, and consulting physician at St. Thomas's Hospital (1928). In the field of neuropathology, he is well known for his textbook in collaboration with Greenfield (1921)... Important also were his studies on myasthenia gravis (to which he contributed the term 'lymphorrhages') (1905), chronic progressive cerebral softening (1906),... delayed traumatic apoplexy (1909), and epidemic encephalitis (1919)."

Sir Edward Farquhar Buzzard (1871-1945)

Source: Haymaker, Webb (Army Institute of Pathology). Guide to the exhibit on the history of neuropathology. Presented at the annual meetings of the American Psychiatric Association (Washington, DC, May 17-20, 1948) and the American Neurological Association (Atlantic City, June 14-17, 1948).

Monday, December 5, 2016

Neuropathology History: Carl Wernicke (1848-1905)

"Born in Tarnowitz, Poland... A highly original thinker, he can be said to have been a pupil only of Meynert, though he was greatly influenced by the works of Hitzig and Munk."


Carl Wernicke (1848-1905)
Source: Haymaker, Webb (Army Institute of Pathology). Guide to the exhibit on the history of neuropathology. Presented at the annual meetings of the American Psychiatric Association (Washington, DC, May 17-20, 1948) and the American Neurological Association (Atlantic City, June 14-17, 1948).

Friday, December 2, 2016

Guest Post: Fibrous Bodies Nicely Demonstrated in a Smear from a Somatotroph Pituitary Adenoma


Christian Davidson, MD

Dr. Christian Davidson, director of neuropathology at the Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital in New Jersey, provides today's blog post:

A 30-year-old man presented with bitemporal hemianopsia and a 3.0 cm pituitary mass was discovered upon MRI. His IGF-1 was elevated to 900, but he had no signs of acromegaly. A smear of tissue sent for frozen section evaluation (see below) revealed that most cells had round, eosinophilic, perinuclear inclusions suggestive of fibrous bodies (some examples are circled). Dot-like CAM5.2 immunostain (not shown) confirmed my smear-based diagnostic suspicion.


Thursday, December 1, 2016

Pineal Parenchymal Tumor of Intermediate Differentiation, WHO grade III


"A tumor of the pineal gland that is intermediate in malignancy between pineocytoma and pineoblastoma and is composed of diffuse sheets or large lobules of monomorphic round cells that appear more differentiated than those observed in pineoblastoma." -- WHO Book (2016)

The particular example depicted above recurred with leptomeningeal spread.

Tuesday, November 29, 2016

Vestige of a choroidal melanoma

Only melanin and melanophages remain in an enucleation specimen from a patient successfully treated with brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma. The eye was enucleated not because of the tumor, but because it was blind and intractably painful in the aftermath of treatment.


Monday, November 28, 2016

Best Post of October 2016: Brain Cancer Surpasses Leukemia as #1 Pediatric Cancer Killer

The next in our "Best of the Month" series comes from October 18, 2016:

The following post appeared on the Johns Hopkins Neuropathology Blog last month. The author is Andrew Black:

New data from the CDC shows the mortality rates for pediatric cancers is in decline. A study published by the CDC found that during 1999–2014, the cancer death rate for patients aged 1–19 years in the United States dropped 20%. What is also changing are the type of patients dying. In 1999, leukemia was the leading killer of childhood cancer. That has been replaced by brain cancer. Numerous other trends were also observed in the study.

In both 1999 and 2014, more than one ­half of all cancer deaths among children and adolescents 1­-19 years old were attributable to either leukemia or brain cancer. 3 out of 10 cancer deaths among children and adolescents aged 1–19 years in 1999 were due to leukemia (29.7%), and 1 in 4 were due to brain cancer (23.7%). By 2014, these percentages reversed and brain cancer was the most common site, accounting for 29.9% of total cancer deaths.

Wednesday, November 23, 2016

Germline and somatic BAP1 mutations in high-grade rhabdoid meningiomas

Ganesh Shankar of Brigham and Women's Hospital and colleagues recently published an article in Neuro-Oncology entitled Germline and somatic BAP1 mutations in high-grade rhabdoid meningiomas. Rhabdoid meningiomas are designated in the World Health Organization Classification of Tumours as high grade, despite the fact that only a subset follow an aggressive clinical course. To define genomic aberrations of rhabdoid meningiomas, the authors performed sequencing of cancer-related genes in 27 meningiomas from 18 patients with rhabdoid features and evaluated breast cancer [BRCA]1–associated protein 1 (BAP1) expression by immunohistochemistry in 336 meningiomas. The tumor suppressor gene BAP1 is inactivated in a subset of high-grade rhabdoid meningiomas. Patients with BAP1-negative rhabdoid meningiomas had reduced time to recurrence compared with patients with BAP1-retained rhabdoid meningiomas. A subset of patients with BAP1-deficient rhabdoid meningiomas harbored germline BAP1 mutations, indicating that rhabdoid meningiomas can be a harbinger of the BAP1 cancer predisposition syndrome. The authors conclude that BAP1-mutated rhabdoid meningiomas are clinically aggressive, requiring intensive clinical management.